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Botulinum toxin: the ideal treatment of expression wrinkles
____________________________________________________________________

The expression, yes. The wrinkles, no!
__________ INTRODUCTION __________
Wrinkles are caused by a combination of age, damage caused by the sun and by tobacco, and by excess weight. But, above all, they are the result from repeated muscular contractions in the same place: facial expressions ! Botulinum toxin relaxes the muscles and will contribute to making these wrinkles disappear.

  No side effects are visible after the injections, which means that your social and professional life can go on without any interruption.
It is not a paralysis, but a simple lack of the muscle strength, which ensures a totally natural result.
The injections, easy for an experienced doctor, are totally harmless and require no anaesthesia.    





__________ HISTORY __________


Botulinum toxin has been marketed since 1977, for spasms of the eyelids, certain sight problems and spasmodic torticolis. Millions of people over the entire world have been treated using botulinum toxin, in certain cases of the following affections: spasms of the eyelids, sight problems, spasmodic torticolis, spasms of the laryngeal muscles, writer's cramp, trembling and tics, multiple sclerosis, encephalopathy, the condition after certain cerebral haemorrhages, injuries of the spinal marrow, nervous paralysis, facial spasms, problems to swallow, speech impediments, spasms of the urinary bladder, etc...

  In 1988, a Vancouver ophthalmologist who injected his patients who suffered from eyelids spasms with botulinum toxin noticed that botulinum toxin made their wrinkles disappear as well. Her husband, dermatologist Alistair Carruthers MD, did extensive research, which confirmed that botulinum toxin could be very effective to treat aesthetic indications.
__________ TECHNIQUE __________


What are expression wrinkles ?

Wrinkles in the upper half of the face result from the interaction between the skin and the underlying muscles. These wrinkles appear every time you laugh or frown your eyebrows, and every time that you are angry or lift your eyebrows.  

After a certain time, these wrinkles become permanently visible, even in rest. The face appears to be permanently marked.

  There is, however, a quick and easy solution to this problem: injections with botulinum toxin.


What is botulinum toxin ?

Botulinum toxin (type A) is a drug derived from the botulism bacteria.

Botulinum toxin does not contain the bacteria, but contains only the toxin. (Contrary to the botulism disease, which is caused by the massive intake of the bacteria, especially in certain cases of food poisoning).  

How does it work ?

Botulinum toxin blocks the neuro-muscular ends in the part of the body where it has been injected (neuro-muscular ends constitute the link between the muscle and the nerve and allow the muscle to contract).   By blocking the neuro-muscular ends, botulinum toxin brings the muscle in a state of rest, thus reducing its power to contract.
Which results can be expected ?

The first results are visible on the second day. The full results become apparent after ten days. They will last for several months and will then gradually disappear between the fourth and the seventh month. After this period, the treatment can be repeated.  

The skin becomes smoother, the faces has a more relaxed appearance. This makes one look younger; the face is certainly less marked. The normal facial expression does not change because of botulinum toxin remarkable precision. The face's form does not alter either and the face does not appear stiffened, as is the case with some face-lifts.

Some treatments can have an influence on the effect of botulinum toxin

Antibiotics based on amino glycosides (injections with Streptomycin , Tobramycin en Garamycin ), penicillamin, quinine and blocks of the calcium channel (Calan , Cardizem , Dilacor , Norvasc , Procardia , Verelan ).
If you are being treated with one of these drugs, please make mention of it.
 
Safety?

Here botulinum toxin is used in very small amounts comparatively to other medical specialisations.
It is working by blocking the nervous ends at the contact of the muscles in the areas where it has been injected, and this only temporary.
 

  






__________ SIDE-EFFECTS __________

Is there a danger for the body ?

Outside the action on the muscle, botulinum toxin has no toxic or any other effect on the body.



Are there any side-effects ?

No side effects are visible after the injections (ecchymoses are very rare, except when taking aspirin the last few days prior to the injections).

 

Cases of temporarily loss of eyebrows and eyelashes have been reported, but these always occurred when the injections were too close to the eyebrow.

Very few side effects have been described : allergic reactions with cutaneous eruptions or itching, arrythmia, and glaucoma (during the treatment of blefarospasm)
Are there any counter-indications to botulinum toxin ?

As a precaution: pregnancy, breast-feeding and neuro-muscular diseases (myasthenia).





__________ INDICATIONS __________

In which cases is botulinum toxin indicated ?

Vertical wrinkles on the forehead

Strong muscles cause vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows. Repeated frowning one's eyebrows leads to deep, permanent wrinkles. Inhibiting these hyperactive muscles results in a more serene and relaxed facial expression.
Crow's feet

Laughing causes these. They depart from the outer corners of the eye and can become so pronounced that they loose their likable appearance. Small doses of botulinum toxin make this disfiguring symptom disappear, while at the same time keeping the smile unaffected.
Horizontal wrinkles on the forehead

These wrinkles are probably what botulinum toxin has the most effect on. Botulinum toxin makes the skin of the forehead as smooth as it once was.
Wrinkles in the lower part of the face and in the neck

Botulinum toxin can be used to reduce certain vertical folds in the neck.



Other indications for the lower face part are to examinate case by case: some lines of the
nose, of the chin, of the sides of the mouth, etc.




__________ PICTURES __________

Even if lots of pictures showing results can been seen on lots of websites, the medical association in Belgium does not allow us anymore to show them, reason why you won't find any here. On the other hand, you will, during the consultation, have access to all those pictures to show you the quality of our work.




If you wish to have specific information relating to your case,
please come and see us.



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